Big Concrete Bunker “E-20"

Ploča / Barbaričine, Zadar, Zadar County, Croatia
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Year of build:
Original name:
Past and Present Ownership of the Building/Site:

Past: Italian army; Present: private

Typology and Style

Military object – bunker.

Degree of preservation and status of protection

The bunker is in a quite solid condition. It is not under protection.

Architectural Description

The exact time of construction of the bunker is not known, but it was most likely in the 1930s following Circular no. 200. This bunker is an older model of a large bunker built of reinforced concrete. The side walls are up to one meter thick while the roof is up to two meters thic. The mentioned bunker consists of two parts - the entrance part with a room at the level of the surrounding terrain and the elevated part with positions for three light machine guns. Two additional loopholes are left and right of the entrance and used to protect the back of the bunker.

History and Historical Context

With the end of the First World War and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Zadar belonged to the Kingdom of Italy. However, encircled with the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Zadar represented the enclave on the eastern Adriatic coast. Learned from the end of the war and growing mistrust, all European countries began defining borders and building bunkers. Italy starts off construction of the fortifications in 1931, shortly after the issuance of circular no. 200. Zadar gained particular importance as an enclave in addition to the defensive functions it also served as a springboard for new conquests.

The fort was used by the Italian Army during the short so-called April war (attack of the Axis powers on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 6th April 1941 to 17th April 1941) and probably by the German Army in the years 1943 - 1944.

Values of the Building

It is a unique model of the bunker in the Zadar area. There is historical and architectural value as part of the Italian fortification ring that developed around Zadar in the period between the two world wars.

Description of the Urban Context and Development

The bunker is located in an area that is not urbanized and is intended for the expansion of the industrial zone. As there are several larger and smaller bunkers and combat positions on several hundred square meters, this bunker should be considered as a single unit with the others.

New Cultural Tourist Offer Focused on Selected Building/Site

Since the mentioned bunker is located along the road leading to the city, this bunker can be presented to a larger number of visitors and tourists in order to acquaint them with the existence of such fortifications. This bunker should be considered a unique whole with the others.